He said to Me, ‘You are My Son,
Today I have begotten You.
8 ‘Ask of Me, and I will surely give the nations as Your inheritance,
And the very ends of the earth as Your possession.
9 ‘You shall break them with a rod of iron,
You shall shatter them like earthenware.’ ”
10 Now therefore, O kings, show discernment;
Take warning, O judges of the earth.
11 Worship the Lord with reverence
And rejoice with trembling.
12 Do homage to the Son, that He not become angry, and you perish in the way,
For His wrath may soon be kindled.
How blessed are all who take refuge in Him! (Psalm 2:7-12)
But it is not new information because that royal covenant was intimated to David through the prophet Nathan (2 Sam. 7:8–16), indicating once again the Divine initiative. It was to be an everlasting covenant with David’s royal lineage (2 Sam 23:5). So we see here that the reference to a “decree” here is a reference to the divine oracle spoken when the king took his throne. David goes on and tells us: The Lord said. Although many suppose that this psalm is for the crowning of a king, the past tense indicates that the king recalls the oracle at a later time of trouble. This could be seen as recalling quite a few of the incidents in David’s past as King. The particular incident he has in mind is when his Lord said to him “You are my Son”.
In 2 Sam. 7:14, God says that he will take the heir of David as a “son.” The people as a whole are called the “son of God” (see Ex. 4:22–23; Ps. 80:15; Hos. 11:1), and the king is called the “son of God” because he represents and embodies the people (see also Ps. 89:27). Hebrews 1:5 brings Ps. 2:7 together with 2 Sam. 7:14: this shows that the argument of that book assumes that Jesus is the messianic heir of David (the Son of God), into whom God has also folded the priestly office. In Acts 13:33 (a speech of Paul) and Rom. 1:4, Paul portrays the resurrection of Jesus as his coronation, his entry into his Davidic rule.
We note the reference to the fact that the day in view in David’s mind was the day that God had “begotten” him. Of course, this does not mean that God had created him from nothing for the purposes we see given here. David was a young adult at this time and so we conclude that he cannot and would be referring to his creation or birth. Rather, given this, we can easily conclude that he is speaking of the time when God “begot” his King” for His “son”, the nation as a whole, those whom He had called His “son”. This phrase is referred to in quite a number of NT passages:
17 And suddenly a voice came from heaven, saying, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.”
At John the Baptists baptism of our Lord Jesus, God announced that Jesus was “His Beloved Son” meaning much the same thing as He did when He spoke to David way back in 2 Sam. 7:14.
Mark 1:1, 11; Luke 3:22; John 1:18; Acts 13:33; [Heb. 1:5; 5:5]
Christians generally interpret the covenant with David as a Messianic covenant. For several centuries the dynasty established by David ruled a united Israel, then ruled the remaining southern kingdom of Judah.
However, we do know that in 586 b.c. Judah was conquered by the Babylonians. At that point a descendant of David was no longer ruling an independent kingdom of God’s chosen people. The everlasting nature of the covenant with David was brought out clearly and we are able to see that God’s Davidic Covenant is primarily for the continued rulership, however, not in the pages of ancient history but in the expectation of a Messiah who would be born of David’s descendants. Matthew and Luke both pointed to Jesus’ Davidic descent (Mt 1:1; Lk 3:31). The NT thus extends the covenant acts of God into the new age in the person of Jesus.
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